Tuesday, 28 June 2016

Disability in Africa: Superstition and Tradition

disability in africa

What do you think of when you hear the words “disability” and “Africa”? Perhaps an image of poverty-stricken children with polio comes to mind, or maybe you’ll picture charities like Doctors Without Borders working tirelessly to better the sickly.

While there is still a lot of work to be done in furthering disability rights and dismantling ableism throughout Africa, the continent is so vast, so full of history and so rich with culture that, for centuries, there has been plenty of time devoted to considering special needs. People with all kinds of disabilities have been the subject of folkloric tales, spiritual icons, sources of wisdom and symbols of togetherness and respect.

There is a more wholesome, holistic and spiritual view of disability in most traditional communities: there is less focus on “fixing” or “rehabilitating” various physical and mental limitations, but rather an acceptance of people’s different needs, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. While it is important to note that some tribes and societies are guilty of ableism (and modern societies are not much better), acceptance, inclusion and reverence of the differently-abled is quite common.

Flickr | Robert Hammond
In contrast to western concepts, disability is not usually seen as one conglomerate: for instance, in Tanzania, the term “ulemavu” has only recently been used for disability in general. Throughout history, different disabilities have been considered separately from one another: deafness and paraplegia would not be seen as related issues. Although, more similarly to western definitions, some indigenous societies define disability as “a limitation in social role functions resulting from physical, sensory or emotional abnormalities and is of a spiritual nature” (Interestingly, emotional issues have yet to be fully accepted by mainstream society as disabilities).

It’s widely considered rude to laugh at somebody’s disability. A Songye proverb says “Tosepanga lemene, Efile kiakupanga” — “Don’t laugh at the disabled person, God keeps on creating you”. It’s commonly thought that mocking disability would cause one to suffer disability, whether by a future accident or by bearing a disabled child.

Disability is also associated with great power. A person with one eye is said to see better than a two-eyed person. The Ga from the Accra region in Ghana believe that people with mental disabilities are reincarnations of deities, and are treated with kindness and patience. In Sub-Saharan Africa, any irregular birth — from breech birth to birth defects — is treated especially ritualistically. In Benin, children who were born with anomalies were believed to be protected by supernatural forces and brought good luck. The Kurkana of Kenya see such as children as gifts from God, and must be taken care of as well as possible, in fear of God’s wrath. In Tanzania, the Chagga people believed that people with disabilities protected the community from evil spirits by serving as a pacifier: the presence of a person with a disability satisfied the needs of the evil spirits, and in doing so was treated with respect for keeping the whole community safe.  

It’s important to remember that, in many African countries, community is extremely important: family is seen as the most important social unit, not the individual. While this has been used against the differently-abled (in the sense that performing physical tasks to better the community is prized), this is also used as motivation to treat everybody with respect. A Shona proverb from Zimbabwe states “Benzi hunge riri rajo, kudzena kwaro unopurudza” — if someone with a mental disorder is a member of your family, you applaud his dancing.

The agency of a person with a disability isn’t taken away in many tribes. The Maasai of Kenya accept women with disabilities bearing children, and she is allowed to stay in her family home as “the girl of the homestead” instead of moving in with her husband’s family, which is a privilege in Maasai culture. In the same tribe, children with disabilities are treated the same as able-bodied children, participating in the same rituals. The Hausa people of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger have disabled communities, represented by a leader with the same disability (this social structure goes for every community and profession in Hausaland).

Indeed, many African countries don’t see people with disabilities as being fundamentally different; a person with a specific impairment is seen as just that. The disability does not define who they are, and their contributions to their communities are valued as much as anybody else’s. According to many an East-African proverb, every person has been placed on the earth for a reason.

Encyclopedia of Disability - Volume 5
Hausa Superstitions and Customs

Tuesday, 21 June 2016

From Biomechatronics to Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs: Technology for Accessibility

space, the future, technology, stellar, limitless, future, epic, invent, progress, electro, power, science, travel.

The future is now.

Modern science ultimately exists to better humanity, and although there are very differing opinions on what “bettering humanity” is, this writer thinks we can all agree that investing in technology that helps improve the lives of the differently-abled is an unambiguously good thing.
Not only is it good, but it’s pretty cool, too.

There’s the seemingly-minor upgrade to the Apple Watch, which encourages wheelchair-users to wheel or spin around at regular intervals. The Apple Watch currently prompts those without physical disabilities to get up from their desks - but this is at the expense of inclusivity, since everybody benefits from some kind of exercise. It may seem small to some, but it is a step towards mainstream inclusion of all bodies, particularly since this is a feature of a free software upgrade, so no new hardware or extra money would be required.

Specialty hardware is important, however, and has been around for decades. Maltron, a manufacturer of specialized computer keyboards for various physical disabilities, was founded in 1977! They make one-handed keyboards (for both the left and the right hands), single-finger keyboards, and even keyboards for use with a head or a mouth stick. There is also a keyboard made with recessed keys for those with cerebral palsy.

The IntegraMouse Plus is used via minimal lip movements, making it great for paraplegic users, or users dealing with multiple sclerosis. It comes enabled with a joystick mode for computer games too.

There’s also the enPathia, which can be thought of as an adapted mouse. It’s a small sensor that can be attached to a band, which can then be attached to any part of the body, at any position. There’s a lot of emphasis on the product adapting to the user, so there is no discomfort or steep learning curve when using enPathia. It can be used on the head, forearms, even feet!

Computer peripherals that are adaptable to all needs are essential for allowing everyone to work, access information, express creativity and communicate. Very recently, another big stride has been made towards easing communication: the SignAloud gloves, invented by two university students at The University of Washington, allow users of American Sign Language to communicate by translating the hand movements to spoken word. Although the gloves are still very much in the prototypical stages (the gloves only work via Bluetooth, which is becoming less widely used), the applications are potentially far wider. They’re small and lightweight, they don’t cover up the user’s entire arm or body, and they don’t need any video input, making them much more accessible for everyday use.

Easing communication and enabling people to work is vital, but so is easing movement, of course. Advancements in technology for mobility has made leaps and bounds within the past 20 years. Wheelchairs don’t need to be just for basic, two-dimensional movements anymore, since the IBOT Wheelchair’s inception in 1999. The unique thing about the IBOT is that it lets you climb stairs, by using its two sets of powered wheels, which rotate about each other. The user can also rise to 6ft from a sitting level, and can travel on various terrains, like sand, dirt, gravel and even (3 inch-deep) water.

Unfortunately, the IBOT is no longer for sale, due to a lack of demand contributing to high retail prices that couldn’t be fully covered by insurance policies. However, Toyota has recently partnered with DEKA Research and Development to revive the wheelchair, so there is hope yet.

More readily available are very sci-fi - but quite real - biomechatronic exoskeletons. There’s the Ekso, a bionic suit that the user literally wears which is made for those with weaknesses in their lower limbs, allowing them to stand and walk. There’s also the ReWalk, which the company describes as a “wearable robotic exoskeleton” to give hip and knee motion to spinal cord injury sufferers. They can then stand, walk, turn and use stairs. Another similar product, the Keeogo, uses sensors at the knee and hip joints to literally detect what movement you want to do, and helps you achieve it. The manufacturer, B-Temia, says that this human-machine interface “injects biomechanical energy at joints” which helps restore, maintain or augment their biomechanical functions.

Some folks with mobility difficulties may soon get a lot of use out of very technologically advanced prosthetics such as this prosthetic arm, the fingers of which can be moved individually with the user’s mind.
It’s not yet available to the public; this was a study done at John Hopkins University. The test subject had to just think about finger and hand movements for the prosthetic to follow. This was made possible by electrodes being connected to his brain, and the study is notable because of the information gathered via these electrodes.

It would be really cool if a mechanical limb such as that were to be used with some kind of heat- and touch-sensing artificial skin - which actually does exist!

There are two separate research groups, in the US and in South Korea, who have already developed prototypes. In the US, at Stanford University, Zhenan Bao’s team has already developed a “skin-like self-healing polymer material” and an electronic skin that changes colour depending on the pressure applied to it. Their skin, the Digital Tactile System (DiTact) is an “artificial mechanoreceptor system”, and is a thin plastic two-layered sheet . There are sensors in the top layer that relay pressure information to a flexible electronic circuit in the bottom layer. Here, the information from the sensors is translated into pulses of light which will then be transmitted to nerve cells via light-emitting diodes.

In South Korea is Hyonhyub Ko’s research group, at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology. When pressure is applied onto their two-layered skin, electrodes within both layers connect, and the sensors’ electrical conductance and resistance both change. Because of the microscopic ridges, the skin is super sensitive: it can detect water droplets and single hair strands!

It’s only a matter of time (and corporate investment) until these technologies are made into products that are easily accessible to the public. We think that, in a world where science is making leaps as bold as this one, and in a world where mobility and accessibility is not only amended but also enhanced, the possibilities for advancements in all areas are boundless.

Take a look through the gallery below:
Do you agree? Would you give any of these inventions a try?

Monday, 13 June 2016

A Soundtrack for a Cinematic South African Road Trip

african sunset, tree silhouette, south africa
As we did some research on gorgeous South Africa, interesting animal facts and fun folk tales and as we combed through Epic’s archive of endless stunning photographs of past safaris and tours, we thought that doing so in silence just did not do the marvellous imagery of this country justice (well, near-silence, but the sound of mouse-clicking and keyboard typing isn’t very cinematic).

We believe that an experience such as exploring South Africa deserves a soundtrack as cinematic as the vibrant urban hubs and as evocative as the vast, epic natural landscapes.

So, we’ve searched high and low to find fresh South African sounds that would be perfect for travel. Here are our picks for a South African road trip:

  1. Hezron Chetty - See Journey: A very eclectic, atmospheric instrumental (aptly titled) for driving through and exploring new small, vibey towns or areas. We think the slightly dark, dramatic sound suits places like the Valley of Desolation, found just outside the small town of Graaff Reniet in the Eastern Cape.

  1. BLOODMΛCHINE - So Good: This track’s great when checking out the city lights at night; it’s very danceable (yet not obnoxious) and very good, indeed.

  1. DJ Ango - Elevation: If you’re about to do something scary, like bungee jumping, skydiving, interacting with lions, or even just travelling for the first time, play this epic, dramatic instrumental.

  1. Mind Pool - Trouble Myself: Play this one after a long, long day, and everybody’s tired and winding down. This sleepy, psychedelic space rock is sure to inspire some good dreams.

  1. TouchWood - Suddenly: Play this while on a morning safari. Easy-going, contemporary folk-pop goes beautifully with golden rays of sunshine and a bright blue sky.

  1. The Brother Moves On - Shiyanomayini: This song represents South Africa perfectly. “Shiyanomayini” means “whatever you have” - which can be both optimistic and extremely dark. This track to me is quite warm, yet melancholy - modern, urban South Africa in a nutshell.

  1. Rubber Duc - Stay With Me: Warm and upbeat, this one’s great while stopping for a quick braai and a beer. We defy you to not smile at that saxophone.

What do you think of our playlist? Add any additions in the comments!

Monday, 6 June 2016

How the Able-Bodied Can Be More Respectful (As Told By People with Disabilities)

Too many able-bodied people are still rather uneducated about how to go about interacting with people with disabilities. A lot of us can be tactless, rude, invasive, overly sensitive or just plain annoying; I personally believe that everybody who interacts with people (all people) on the regular should try to just be nice. You never know how your words and actions could affect somebody (and I think it’s a cop-out to expect people to just deal with your own bad behaviour).

In an effort to educate myself, I looked for answers on the internet. In an attempt to not talk over anybody, I have not re-reported my findings. Instead, I have compiled comments, tweets and other social media posts of people with disabilities. I know that part of being a good ally is listening rather than silencing, even if you have the best intentions.

I hope we can all be mindful of the following:

  1. Don’t force yourself into someone’s space; ask if they need assistance

  1. Keep from giving unsolicited advice.

  1. Don’t be condescending

  1. Don’t project your own feelings onto people with disabilities

  1. Never dismiss experiences or feelings. Listen.


Everybody and every body is entitled to respect.
How else can abled-bodied people be more mindful?

Wednesday, 1 June 2016

#WorldMilkDay2016: Celebrating Amasi

From nourishment for infants to the perfect cookie accompaniment, milk is undoubtedly a huge factor in most diets (whether you consume it daily or whether you actively avoid it!).

Milk and dairy has been a staple food of many an African tribe. For centuries, from Kenya to South Africa, milk would be made into amasi (or maas in Afrikaans), by fermenting the unpasteurized product in a calabash and left for a few days.

Still widely popular today, amasi tastes similar to yoghurt or cottage cheese and can be found ready-made in most South African supermarkets.

Here are a few reasons to give amasi a try if you haven’t already:

  1. It can be made into a delicious meal
There’s the traditional Zulu dish Umvumbo, or this easy way to prepare chicken, but what looks absolutely scrumptious to me is this recipe for amasi scones.
Image: MzansiStyle Cusine Aphotograph of 'umvubo' and 'amasi'in calabash
Umvumbo and amasi in a calabash.
Image by MzansiStyle Cuisine
Amasi is an extremely versatile ingredient, and it can be enjoyed by almost everybody, because...

  1. It’s easy to digest
If you’re anything like me and you can’t digest dairy very well (regular old cow’s milk sadly disagrees with my stomach), amasi may be a good dairy source for you, since it’s full of lactic acid. This has many probiotic effects, including better vitamin absorption, and it helps balance your stomach’s acidity levels.
Image by misszeeee.wordpress.com
  1. It destroys E. coli bacteria
According to Richard Mokua’s master’s thesis, the cultures in amasi, amazingly, literally kills E. coli. He’d noticed that children in his Kenyan hometown who consumed amasi had fewer digestive upsets. As someone who is rather skeptical of such claims, it’s pretty awesome to me that this has been scientifically proven.

I’ve yet to try it myself, but it’s definitely on my to-do list. Will you be celebrating #WorldMilkDay?